Saturday, December 5, 2009

Entry 8

Slave narratives play a part as one of America's most important forgotten literary traditions. Rarely are they incorporated into the curriculum taught at the high school and middle school level. Yet, Slave narratives are truly worthy of academic contemplation, because of their structure, style, and importance to the abolition movement. Each narrative is essentially more than a historical account of a poor slave's life. They are heavily crafted pieces of work with specific aims in mind. Authors wrote these narratives as part as abolition propaganda to persuade the public to support their cause. The authors used various forms of rhetoric to appeal to the audience of the era, and one can see these strategies consistent throughout many slave narratives.

Unfortunately, American History tends to gloss over slavery (normally starting from colonialism and then proceeding to the civil war). It is almost erased from history books that America had a history of over three hundred years of slavery. Some argue that America's economic development and success is due to the implementation of slavery. America cannot forget the past that played such a great role in influencing the country's future. America is relatively new to the ideas racial and social equality, and some racist sentiments of the past still permeate into the society. It is vital that students understand the practices of the past, so that they may learn in the future.

In addition, Slave narratives, Such as "The Narrative of the Life of Sojourner Truth", exhibit many strategies that were meant to influence the period audience. They had to be crafted in a way that reflected society's accepted moral and social practices. For instance, it is no coincidence that Sojourner Truth's narrative was written using many religious references and stressing the role of motherhood in Sojourner's life. These aspects were deemed very noble and desirable at the time. A slave that was painted in the accepted standards of society resonated with the readers. It was something the readers could relate to and see as valuable traits of the main character. The author of Sojourner Truth's narrative portrayed Sojourner as a devoted christian (because religion was held very highly by society), and a devoted mother (mother's were put on a pedestal, and held much of the power in the household).

In addition to some forms of rhetoric used, many of these texts were influenced by white textual mediation. This means that the narratives were guided (to some extent) by outside white influences. Therefore, many white editors and scribes picked out what they thought was most important to push their cause. One cannot read these narratives as mere historical accounts of slaves' lives, but with the notion that each story was biased in some form or another. For instance, various passages in Sojourner Truth's narrative have the direct thoughts and feelings of the white author. This textual mediation guides the narrative to specific goals and aims.

Slave narratives should no longer be ignored by the public. Many narratives (Sojourner Truth's in particular) are reflective of the cultural and historical moment of the time. The aggregations of these narratives fit into a historical niche that can be viewed (not only as individual literary works) as a historical footprints. American's cannot ignore the dark shadow slavery has cast upon the continent. It is pertinent that the young are exposed early to these works so that mistakes can be analyzed and learned from; so that the youth can establish a solid foundation of a brighter and better future.

Rhetorical Situation- Sojourner Truth (Entry 7)

Like many of the slave narratives of the time, "The narrative of Sojourner Truth" consistently fallows many of the rhetorical traditions used during the 1800s. As discussed earlier, Sojourner Truth's narrative was crafted very specifically to target a certain demographic and draw upon certain emotions out of the audience. It should be of no surprise that the author of the narrative constructed Sojourner's story in a way that would appeal to the northern white christian audience. Sojourner Truth had many factors that worked against her; She was black ex-slave and a woman. In order to play upon the emotions of the readers, the author had to base the narrative on the accepted standards and norms of the time (most prevalently: Christianity in society).

One theme (in particular) the narrative fallows is the Christian spiritual biography. The role of Christianity in the narrative serves to connect the readers with the main character, and established some form of credibility so the readers can trust that Sojourner was a "virtuous" person. "Any general overview that connects rhetoric and religion must feature social practices that constitute belief: those speeches, deeds, and actions of persuasive mortals and gods" (Swearingen et al 31). The audience must be convinced that the main character, Truth, fallowed the religious and social practices of the period. The narrative is inclined to present this by highlighting many of Sojourner Truth's spiritual aspects. For example, the Author devotes a whole entire chapter to Sojourner's religious revelations named "Isabella's Religous Experience". The author even implies that Sojourner may be holy by highlighting a possible conversation with Jesus: 'Who are you?' She exclaimed, as the vision brightened into a distinct form, beaming with beauty and holiness, and radiant love...- 'I know you, and I don't know you.' Meaning, 'You seem perfectly familiar; I feel that you not only love me, but that you always have loved me" (NST 616). This vivid imagery strikes are particular chord in the reader's mind. It displays a black female conversing with the son of God: Jesus. This passage should help erase the notion that blacks were a subspecies of humans.

In addition to the establishment of the main character's religious credibility, The rhetoric of religion served as an outlet for women to openly push forward their abolition agenda. Besides the obvious inequity of blacks and whites, inequality existed between genders. Women were almost second class citizens to men, and if women wanted their argument to be taken seriously by men they needed some sort of vehicle to argue their political agenda. Luckily, women were not completely powerless in society. They held power of the household and some power in the church. "When the Grimke sisters, Angelina and Sarah, wrote against slavery, they knew well that only their religious convictions could provide them a discourse of power, credibility, and respectability, an idea that continues to play out when we look at the work of... Frederick Douglass... Sojourner Truth... and Maria Stewart" (Swearingen et al. 32). Sojourner Truth gained religious prominence through her preaching; very much the way women of the abolition movement gained influence through their christian organizations.

The fact of the matter is that religion was a very effective tool to close the gap between gender inequality. "The synergy of rhetoric and religion continues to provide ways for feminist (both male and female) to enter religious discussion, argument, and belief, often calling into question the fundamental maleness of Christian theology and of rhetoric itself" (Swearingen et al. 32-33). Making Sojourner Truth's story a religious argument for abolition aided to place women on the same level as men. As history has shown, religion's role in gender equality, race rights, and suffrage played a major role in establishing these precedents. For instance, prohibition was women's religious crusade against the burden alcohol played on society (domestic abuse being a major one). This movement was so strong that the federal government actually outlawed the sale and consumption of alcohol in the United States. By leveling the playing field, women were able to get their message out about the horrors of slavery to the psyche and body. This is why religion was held to such a great degree by the female population (it gave them power otherwise they would not have).

The rhetoric of religion was dominant force that played a major role throughout Sojourner Truth's narrative. It served as a central argument to push for abolition in the narrative. One cannot deny the force that religion played in the 1800s as a source of women's power. It's predominance in many slave male and female narratives indicates that it's message was very convincing. One puts narratives like Sojourner Truth under the microscope in understand that every line and word was position for a meaningful purpose. One reads these texts not entirely as historical accounts, but some for of "propaganda" to the abolitionist movement.

Rhetoric, the Polis, and the Global Village Selected Papers From the 1998 Thirtieth Anniversary Rhetoric Society of America Conference. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1999. Google Scholar. Web. 5 Dec. 2009. .

Friday, November 27, 2009

Historical and Cultural aspect (entry #6)

When Sojourner Truth's first slave narrative was published in 1850 the United States was in a heated battle on the issue of slavery. 1850 was a very important year in U.S history as key political decisions on slavery threatened to further the gap between North and South. The slave based legislation passed at this period was a attempt to appease the South. Despite efforts to reduce tensions between the two demographics, relations between the north and south would boil over to war. Events such as Nat Turners revolt (1831), canning of Senator Charles Sumner (1856), John Brown (1859), Bleeding Kansas (1853-'61), and the election of President Abraham Lincoln would be strong catalysts in South's push for succession.

Sojourner Truth's narrative was published the same year the Missouri Compromise of 1850 was agreed upon. In earlier years of the United States, the balance of slave and free states were fairly well maintained. Whenever a free state entered the Union a slave state would most likely fallow to the south (vice versa). Balance of power between the two divisions was, for the most part, equal. Multiple events occurred that disrupted this balance. As a result of the Mexican war, the United States obtained vast amounts of land from Mexico. There was debate about how the territory would be divided, and which states would be admitted as a free or slave state. In addition, Texas had a land dispute out where its borders were (at the time Texas said its state extended all the way to Santa Fe). Finally, California requested that it be admitted to the Union as a free state (Africans in America).

Henry Clay, U.S Senator from Kentucky, took charge to find out a workable compromise that plagued States and the Federal Government. Clay's compromise called that Texas would relinquish some of it's land (but be compensated with ten million dollars), the territories of New Mexico, Utah, Nevada, and Arizona would be admitted without slave or free state status (giving residence a referendum to decide), and California would be admitted to the Union as a free state. To pacify the pro-slavery political sect Clay proposed The Fugitive Slave Act (Africans in America).

Ironically, the year Sojourner Truth's narrative and her contemporary's, Frederick Douglass, narrative was in circulation to protest equal rights and advocate abolition, a act was passed that strengthened slavery. The law appointed commissioners in every county of the United States to oversee that the law was observed. The commissioners were able to use Federal Marshalls and the military to enforce the law. The law required that runaway slaves were returned to their masters, because a runaway was technically stealing his master's property. Anyone harboring a runaway or aiding one could be fined or jailed. The alleged fugitive was not able to testify on his/her behalf nor was he/she allowed trial by jury. The commissioner would hear the case of the fugitive and the claimant. The commissioner would receive five dollars if he ruled against the claimant, but he was paid ten dollars if he ruled in favor (Finkleman). In other words, the commissioner had a larger incentive to rule in favor of the claimant.

The act obviously received strong opposition from the north, but it was nothing compared to the violence the compromise instilled in the new states admitted into the Union. It was a terrible move for Congress to let the citizens of the territory to decide their status as a free or slave state. The area that would soon become Kansas became a battleground between slave and free states. Inhabitants of the territory were harassed by free state and slave state advocates. Harassing turned to violence as many free state and slave state advocate flocked to the territory to try to push their agendas. Violence erupted throughout the territory as both sides tortured and killed each other. Many would be killed as the whole event would be labeled as Bleeding Kansas. In 1861 after much bloodshed and violence, Kansas was admitted to the Union as a free state.

Sojourner Truth's narrative was published as tensions between anti-slavery, abolitionists, and pro-slavery positions were severely escalating. Sojourner Truth's argument about the treacheries of slavery only helped to instill the north to push for it's agenda. The publication of Truth's narrative marked the point where the rift between north and south would be miles wide, and the large blood spread between the two sides.

"Bleeding Kansas." PBS. Web. 27 Nov. 2009. .

"Compromise of 1850." PBS. Web. 27 Nov. 2009.
Finkleman, Paul. "Fugitive Slave Law of 1850." Encyclopedia of African American History, 1619-1895: From the Colonial Period to the Age of Frederick Douglass. Ed. PaulFinkleman. Oxford African American Studies Center. Fri Nov 27, 2009. .

Tuesday, November 24, 2009

Literary Traditions of NST (entry #5)

Sojourner Truth's narrative fits intricately into the slave narratives of the time. Her narrative fallows many of the literary traditions of the period, and we are inclined to see this in the form of textual evidence from her narrative. Also, Sojourner's experiences (such as sexual abuse, spiritual guidance, and personal struggle) are common occurrences of the genre. It is pertinent to remember that many slave narratives, like Sojourner Truth's, were highly mediated by outside influences. One must therefore read this narrative keeping in mind that a white woman took dictations of Truth's experiences, and the narrative was published and funded by white men. What is written in the narrative is what the publisher/editor wanted the audience to know. The narrative is merely the aggregations of what the framers of the narrative thought was most important.

One can pick out many correlations between period old and new narratives. As one may recall, a common atrocity slave women faced was sexual abuse by their masters. Harriet Jacobs was quoted in her narrative as saying: "Slavery is terrible for men; but it is far more terrible for women" (823). Jacob's narrative was one of the few that openly addressed the issue of sexual abuse during slave times. The reason why sexual abuses of women were not openly expressed in narratives was because the writers did not want to hurt the purity of the slave women. The general cultural belief of the time was that the model "fine" upstanding Christian woman was very reserved. It was a common belief that slave women were licentious by nature, and highlighting the sexual abuse of slave women only stood to hurt the credibility of the narrative.

Unlike Jacob's sexually explicit narrative, Sojourner Truth's narrative fallows a similar pattern to that of the "History of Mary Prince"; whereas sexual abuses were not addressed openly but were present in the subtext. The reader gets a hint that Sojourner Truth may have been sexually assaulted. This is a possibility in the way one of her former mistresses, Mrs. Dumont is depicted. "Isabella suffered many hardships at the hands of Mrs. Dumont, whom Isabella later described as cruel and harsh. Although she did not explain the reasons for this treatment in her later biography narrative, historians have surmised that the unspeakable things might have been sexual abuse or harassment, or simply the daily humiliations that slaves endured" (Women in History). However, one is inclined to believe that there is a reason as to why the author was not willing to highlight some of the abuses Truth experienced. It is very possible to extrapolate from this information that she was most likely sexually abused (a very common practice that oppressed many slave women). One can see an example of the implied sexual abuses as written in Mary Prince's narrative: " Mr. D--, to whom conduct of peculiar atrocity is ascribed" (Prince 1). The narrator does not openly condemn the acts of the Masters/Mistresses, but implies that their actions may have been sexually abusive. One can only infer upon the limited information provided in the text that these events may have been sexually abusive.

In addition to subtle hint of sexual abuse, Sojourner Truth's narrative distinctly fallows that of a spiritual narrative. Throughout the narrative, there is a strong presence of spirituality. In one of her spiritual awakenings the author quotes: "Her heart recoils now, with very dread, when she recalls these shocking, almost blasphemous conversations with the great Jehova . And well for herself she deem it, that, unlike earthly potentates, his infinite character combined the tender father with the omniscient and omnipotent Creator of the universe" (612). Truth's journey out of slavery coincides with her spiritual journey to god. This can be related to that of "Memoir of Old Elizabeth A Colored Woman". Both women ended up becoming preachers, and both women experienced some sort of spiritual conflict to overcome. Slavery denied these women the right to express their spiritual freedoms. In addition, both women found peace in the lord. Old Elizabeth exclaimed: " I then renewed my struggle, crying for mercy and salvation, until I found that every cry raised me high and higher, and my head was quite above the fiery pillars. Then I thought I was permitted to look straightforward, and saw the Savior standing with his hands stretched out to receive me" (Old Elizabeth 6). This rhetoric only helps to add to the character's credibility. The period public likes to see that the person written in the narrative has strong spiritual connections to god. The authors like to distinct between past spiritual ignorance and revelation. It is common in slave narratives to underline the spiritual journey of the enslaved.

The narrative fallows the general formula of many slave narratives. Like Frederick Douglass, Harriet Jacobs, Mary Prince, Old Elizabeth, and many others, Sojourner Truth's narrative fallows a line of conflict and conflict resolution. There is normally a point of struggle for the enslaved (foremost living under slavery) in which the character most likely uses religion as an aid to solve their internal/external problems. Like Frederick Douglass and Harriet Jacobs, Sojourner Truth struggles to cope with the degradation of slavery on her physical and psychological well being (conflict). The readers are inclined to see some degree of resolution when the character escapes bondage and (sometimes) finds faith. Sojourner Truth merely used her faith as a tool to deal with the oppressiveness of slavery on her and her children. Again, the strong use of faith to overcome enumerable odds works to promote the character (credibility is further established among readers and the characters).

An important quality of slave narratives is that trials and tribulations facing the the (ex)slave is overcome. In addition, a commonality that exists between many narratives (Douglas and Jacobs included) is that the main character walks away from his/her trial as a stronger and better person. On is greatly inclined to see this in Sojourner's narrative as they're are continual references that Sojourner now knows better then she did back then: "She then firmly believed that slavery was right and honorable. Yet she now sees very clearly the false position they were all in" (591).

Also, it is pertinent to re-consider how important textual mediation is in Sojourner Truth's narrative. There exists striking similarities between Harriet Jacob's narrative and Sojourner Truths. Though Jacob's wrote her narrative and Sojourner's was dictated, both narratives were heavily influenced by outside forces. Jacobs was influenced by such influences such as white, abolitionist, and woman's right activist Amy Post. Truth's narrative was actually influenced by Olive Gilbert and white radical, William LyodGarrison. A deep understanding must be noted that both works were the product of white men and women. Sojourner Truth's work was entirely made up by white people. The thoughts of the narrator are included in Truth's narrative indicating a strong outside presence: "And the writer of this knows, from personal observation, that the slaverholders of the South feel it to be a religious duty to teach their slaves to be honest, and never to take what is not their own! Oh consistency, art thou not a jewel?" (591).

Sojourner Truth's narrative displays very prominent characteristics for a period slave narrative. Her spiritual narrative, textual mediation, purity question, and subtext of sexual abuse is few of many other distinctions between slave narratives. It can be said that there are many more correlations one can see between narratives. Truth stands as an exemplary figure to that of slave narratives alike, and continues to be put under the microscope of academic examination.

Tuesday, November 17, 2009

Annotated Sources (Entry #4)

"Truth, Sojourner - Introduction." Nineteenth-Century Literary Criticism. Ed. Juliet Byington. Vol. 94. Gale Cengage, 2001. 2006. 18 Nov, 2009

Truth was no doubt a very important player in the abolitionist and feminist movement, but she was also uneducated and illiterate. How history judges her apparently is not based on her lack of fundamental educational skills, but her ability to orate and preach extremely effectively. The author highlights how Truth was able to captivate her audience through her speeches and inspire them to a great degree. As the author closes, her "short comings" did not effect the way she was recieved through history because she was inducted into the women's hall of fame in the eighties.

Darlene Clark Hine. The Journal Of Blacks In Higher Education. No. 13 (Autumn, 1996): pg. 127-128.

Sojourner Truth, the legendary figure, many know, may have not actually been all that legendary. Darlene Clark describes Sojourner Truth's life as almost nothing more than a quest for mere survival. Clark points out that Truth primarily used white people for economic security and acceptance. In addition, Clark indicates that Sojourner's spiritual quest was influenced by a psychotic so-called prophet. The author does this to expose the true Sojourner Truth behind the legend. Clark does this, not to put a damper on her image, to point out that Sojourner Truth's life wasn't as fantastic as many believe. Clark paints Truth in a whole new picture that many are not familiar with.

"Sojourner Truth and Rosa Parks." Sojourner Home Page. Web. 18 Nov. 2009.

Sojourner Truth was an abolitionists and women's rights advocate, but many may be surprised to find out that she also pushed for equal rights for blacks. This article relates Rosa Parks to Sojourner Truth by pointing out that she, like Parks, refused to be segregated and discriminated on public transportation. In fact, Truth sat wherever she pleased on trolleys and she even ran after a trolley that refused to stop for her because she was a black woman. The author establishes that Rosa Parks wasn't actually the first to openly refuse to abide by the Jim Crow rules, and Truth was doing it long before Rosa Parks was born.

"Sojourner Truth :." Voices From the Gaps : University of Minnesota. Web. 19 Nov. 2009. .

This Article talks about how Sojourner Truth, although an abolitionist, established herself as a prominent women's rights advocate, and a inspiration for future generation of women. The author goes through Sojourner Truth's life and describes certain speeches/events that dealt with addressing rights for women. The reader is left with the author's view that Truth lead an unconventional life as a women who did not believe in the traditional roles of women, and continued to advocate for slaves and women until her death.

"This Far by Faith . Sojourner Truth |." PBS. The Faith Project, 2003. Web. 17 Nov. 2009. .

This blurb (feature on PBS) explores Sojourner Truth's religious experiences as a slave and freed woman. As one can view, Sojourner experienced many religious events throughout her narrative (as her narrative is written in part as a spiritual journey). The author highlights these spiritual events by placing them in chronological order (starting from her days in slavery all the way to her preaching days). The purpose of the author is to indicate how much of a role religion had in influencing Sojourner Truth to become the women she was. In addition, the article highlights what a great role religion played in her life, and the prominence that inspired her.

Monday, November 16, 2009

Annotated sources (Entry #3)

Jean Lebedun. American Literature, Vol. 46, No. 3 (Nov., 1974) pp. 359-363

Harriet Beecher Stowe, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Lucretia Mott are considered invaluable players towards the fight for women suffrage. Few would think how much of a role Sojourner Truth played in advocating women's rights, and captivating the attention of period celebrity, Harriet Beecher Stowe. Lebedun explains how one meeting with Sojourner Truth caused Stowe to write an introduction to one of Sojourner's narratives, and inspired her to get a sculptor to create a work in Sojourner's image. Lebedun's aim is to indicate that an illiterate, uneducated, former slave could influence one of the most prestigious writers of the period.

Carleton Mabee. The New England Quarterly, Vol. 61, No. 4 (Dec., 1988), pp. 519-529

In a effort to discover the real relationship between Sojourner Truth and President Lincoln, Mabee sifts through past historical documents and accounts to prove that many events that supposedly took place between the President and Sojourner were fabricated or overly exaggerated. There exists this notion that Sojourner Truth had influence in some of Lincoln's greatest achievements. As Mabee points out, there exist a lot of myths of what took place between Sojourner and Lincoln (some painting Lincoln as overly sympathetic to slaves and some overly aggrandizing the relation between Sojourner Truth and Lincoln). The Author conveys that it is improbable that Sojourner advised the president on National Policy, educated Lincoln on the hardships of slavery, tried to get her face on a bill, and convinced him to enlist more blacks into the army. In addition, Lincoln wasn't all that close to Sojourner, nor did he get her a position in the Freedmens Bureau. The author does this, not necessarily try to take away from the image of Lincoln and Sojourner, but to indicate that many past publications about the President and
Sojourner were merely false.

Washington, Patricia. "Political Resistance." Black Women in America, Second Edition. Ed. Darlene ClarkHine. Oxford African American Studies Center. Mon Nov 16 22:24:23 EST 2009. .

Patricia Washington references Sojourner Truth in an attempt to convey the political resistance exhibited in America (ranging from abolition to modern day civil rights). Sojourner Truth took great risks in openly denouncing slavery and advocating women's rights. Patricia concludes that Sojourner and others like her fought to stop dichotomy between gender and race. The risks these women took were to resist the politically unfair practices of the time.

Wednesday, November 11, 2009

Background (entry #2)

Sojourner Truth's narrative was not actually written by herself (Sojourner was illiterate) but was published by multiple authors of the time. The earliest edition was written by white abolitionist, Olive Gilbert, in 1850. The last edition was authored by Frances Titus in 1884 (one year after Sojourner Truth's death).

During her stay at the Northampton Association (a Utopian community based on the philosophy of Charles Fourier), Truth became involved with some key players of the Abolition movement (such as Frederick Douglass and William Loyd Garrison). Olive Gilbert met Truth at the association and started taking dictations for Sojourner's narrative. Gilbert remained with Sojourner two years after the convention came to an end so that she could finish writing Sojourner's narrative (Hutchins).

Olive Gilbert was friends with the well known radical abolitionist: William Loyd Garrison. Garrison actually wrote the preface to Sojourner's narrative. One is easily inclined to see the way in which Garrison attacks the institution of slavery. His radical view of slavery is depicted in the opening of the story without any mercy for his readers:
"Hypocrites! liars! tyrants! men-stealers! atheists! Professing to believe in the natural equality of the human race- yet dooming a sixth portion of your immense population to beastly servitude, and ranking them among our goods and chattels! (NST 570)

In addition to Gilbert and Garrison, Sojourner Truth became acquainted with former slave and abolitionist, Frederick Douglass. During one of Douglass' speeches (orated in Boston Massachusetts at Faneuil Hall), Sojourner stood up and asked Douglass a very famous question: "Douglass, is God dead?". Douglass had relayed a speech that urged black slaves to rise up in arms against their oppressors, and Truth (who accepted the fact that Douglass was frustrated, but not that he had lost faith in G0d) fired back by asking him if god had left African Americans (Sellman). Douglass and Sojourner both went on to speak at a women's rights convention in Worcester, Massachusetts, in 1850 (Painter). Frederick actually wrote about Truth's unrelenting faith in some of his writings.

Sojourner Truth also came into contact with the widely popular author of Uncle Tom's Cabin, Harriet Beecher Stowe. Stowe made Truth famous by publishing an article about her in an 1863 Atlantic Monthly. In Stowe's article, Truth was hailed as being an iconic symbol of faith. Truth "became a national icon of the evangelical and abolitionist movements" (Hutchins).

During her lifetime, Sojourner truth met up with a myriad of "celebrities" at the time. She became friends with Amy Post and visited President Lincoln at the White House during the Civil War. She worked with the Freedman's Bureau and National Freedman's Relief Association from 1864-1866. In the later part of her life, Sojourner joined the American Woman's Suffrage Association. In 1880, Sojourner moved back to her daughters where she lived with them until her death in 1883.

Works Cited:

Hutchins, Zachary. "Summary of Narrative of Sojourner Truth, a Northern Slave, Emancipated from Bodily Servitude by the State of New York, in 1828." Documenting the American South homepage. Web. 12 Nov. 2009. .
Painter, Nell Irvin. "Truth, Sojourner." African American National Biography. Ed. Henry LouisGates Jr.. Ed. Evelyn BrooksHigginbotham. Oxford African American Studies Center. Thu Nov 12 11:49:25 EST 2009.
Sellman, James. "Truth, Sojourner." Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience, Second Edition. Ed. Kwame AnthonyAppiah. Ed. Henry LouisGates Jr.. Oxford African American Studies Center. Thu Nov 12 11:51:44 EST 2009. .